musica Dei donum
"Harmonie Veneziane – 1660-1690: String Music of the Venetian Republic"
Sonatori de la Gioiosa Marca
rec: Sept 2001, Col S. Martino (It), Chiesa di S. Vigilio
Erato 0927-49143-2 (69'15")
F Cavalli: Sinfonia a 5 from 'Eliogabalo';
C Fedeli 'Saggion': Sonata a 4 'in eco' ;
G Legrenzi: Corrente IX a 5 ; Sonata a 5 'La Cremona' ; Sonata I a 4 violini ; Sonata V a 4 viole da gamba ;
J Rosenmüller: Sonata I a 5 ; Sonata II a 5 ; Sonata III a 3 ; Sonata VIII a 4 ;
PA Ziani: Sonata VIII a 4 ; Sonata XV a 5 
(Sources:  Fedeli 'Saggion', Sonate a 2,3,4 op. 1, 1685;
 Legrenzi, Sonate a 2,3,5,6 libro III op. 8, 1663;
 La Cetra, op. 10 (11), 1673;  Balletti e Correnti a 5, op. 16, 1691;
 Rosenmüller, Sonate da camera a 5, 1667;  Sonate a 2,3,4,5, 1682;
 Ziani, Sonate a 2,3,5,6, op. 7, 1667/68)
Giorgio Fava, Roberto Falcone, Luca Ronconi, violin; Balasz Bozzai,
violin, viola; Judit Földes, viola; Walter Vestidello,
cello; Giancarlo Pavan, violone; Giancarlo Rado,
archlute, guitar; Gianpietro Rosato, harpsichord, organ
The music in Venice between Monteverdi and Vivaldi doesn’t get much
attention. When I looked into a book on 500 years of Venetian music the
chapter on the 17th century contained just one page regarding this period.
Only two composers were mentioned: Cavalli and Barbara Strozzi. Even in
The New Grove the article on Venice devotes very little space to
the second half of the 17th century, and then mainly concentrates on the
opera. This was certainly an important genre, apart from the religious
music composed for the many churches in the city, among them the San Marco.
But there were quite a number of composers who wrote chamber music as well.
Among the most important are those whose works are recorded by the Sonatori
de la Gioiosa Marca, an ensemble which regularly points at music which is
One of the features of music life in Venice at this time is the differences
in style between composers, and even within the oeuvre of composers. There
were influences from outside Italy. Just like Italian operas had been
performed in Paris earlier in the century – for instance operas by Cavalli –
French music was performed in Venice. Giovanni Legrenzi, for example,
directed performances of music by Lully. Another cause of the influence
from abroad was the economic and political decline of Venice. As a result
instrumental music was mostly commissioned by foreign patrons. And in order
to please them composers adapted their compositional styles to what these
The troublesome economic situation also encouraged composers to travel
abroad to look for employment. Giovanni Legrenzi held posts in Bergamo
and Ferrara and tried to become Kapellmeister at the imperial court in
Ziani went to Austria and travelled as far as Dresden to perform some of
his theatre and church music.
And then there were foreigners coming to Venice. The city may have
deteriorated economically, it was still a place of huge cultural
reputation. In the case of Johann Rosenmüller, it wasn’t only artistic
reasons which drove him to Venice. Once a promising performer and composer
he had a good prospect of becoming cantor of the Thomasschule in Leipzig.
But in 1655 he was jailed on suspicion of paedophelia. He was able to
escape and went to Venice, where he became a respected musician and
The least well known of the composers represented on this disc is Carlo
Antonio Fedeli, called ‘Saggion’. He developed from violone player to
maestro de’ concerti at San Marco.
The CD opens with a Sinfonia to an opera by Francesco Cavalli,
Monteverdi’s pupil and his successor as Venice’s main opera composer.
But this opera was never performed, since it was considered too
Nevertheless, some of the instrumental music recorded here contains
old-fashioned traces as well. The only work by Fedeli on this disc
combines two techniques which are rooted in the 16th century: the
polychoral style and the use of echo-effects. The four violins are
divided into two ‘choirs’ of two violins each: one in the forefront
and one acting as ‘echo’. In the consecutive sections the violins
dialogize with each other, and then with their respective echoes.
The two works by Ziani are strongly contrasting. The Sonata XV
is characterised by counterpoint, with fugal sections at the start and
the end and a very expressive slow section in the middle. His
Sonata VIII is much lighter and theatrical in character.
Most of Legrenzi’s works concentrate on the upper parts; two of the
four pieces recorded here don’t have parts for the viola. In his works
we find connections with the past too: the Corrente IX, which
closes this disc, is based upon the bass line from the 16th century
aria del Gran Duca.
A peculiar piece is the Sonata V a 4 viole da gamba which was
commissioned in Vienna. The addition o come piace justifies a
performance in a more ‘conventional’ scoring of 2 violins, viola and
cello, but the character of this sonata clearly reflects the intention
to be played on four viole da gamba, and I would love to hear it that way.
Rosenmüller may have been influenced by the music of other Italian
composers, his music still reflects his German musical education.
In particular the Sinfonias from the Sonate da camera of
1667 are written in the stylus phantasticus characteristic of
the North-German style of composition.
The performance does this music full justice. The ensemble has a fine
sense for the phrasing of the individual pieces and is realising the
contrasts within the compositions quite nicely. They also understand
the German origin of Rosenmüller; his music is more clearly articulated,
with a good sense of the hierarchy of the notes within the phrases.
The fast movements or sections are played with great rhythmic flair,
with strong support from the basso continuo. The more austere pieces,
for example Ziani’s Sonata XI, are played with a lot of expression.
And there is a beautiful clarity of the lines where the music has a
In short, this is an excellent recording. The argument for this forgotten
music couldn’t be more eloquent and convincing.
Johan van Veen (© 2003)
Sonatori de la Gioiosa Marca