musica Dei donum
Daniel PURCELL (1664 - 1717): The Judgment of Paris
Anna Dennis (Venus), Amy Freston (Pallas), soprano;
Ciara Hendrick (Juno), mezzo-soprano;
Samuel Boden (Paris), tenor;
Ashley Riches (Mercury), baritone
Rodolfus Choir; Spiritato!
Dir: Julian Perkins
rec: Sept 27 - 29, 2013, London, St John's Smith Square
Resonus Classics - RES10128 (© 2014) (78'46")
Liner-notes: E; lyrics - no translations
The history of English opera - or rather the lack of it - is one of the most notable aspects of the country's musical history. In the course of the 17th century opera became an increasingly important genre in Italy and its style disseminated across the country's borders. At the imperial court in Vienna only Italian operas were performed, and further north operas were written which were modelled after the Italian opera, although mostly in the vernacular. France established its own operatic tradition, ironally through the activities of an Italian, Giovanni Battista Lulli, better known as Jean Baptiste Lully.
Musical developments in England differed from those on the Continent in various ways: music for viol consort was in vogue much longer than elsewhere, the recorder remained one of the most popular instruments long after it had become obsolete elsewhere and it was only in the second decade of the 18th century that the Italian opera was embraced by English audiences. It was exactly that which brought attempts to establish an English operatic tradition to a standstill. A survey of what happened on the English music stage in the late 17th century is told in the liner-notes to the present recording of The Judgment of Paris by Daniel Purcell, one of four settings of a libretto by the playwright William Congreve.
These settings were the outcome of a contest announced in March 1700. Four composers took up the challenge to write the music to Congreve's libretto: Daniel Purcell, John Weldon, John Eccles and Godfrey Finger. In the spring of 1701 all four works were performed separately, and then in June they were presented together. The outcome was probably surprising: Weldon was given first prize, Eccles came second, Purcell third and Finger was rated fourth. The latter was quite annoyed, and shortly thereafter left England never to return. He might have been disappointed by coming last but he didn't claim that his setting was the best: "Mr. Purcell's Musick was the best", he stated according to a letter of a contemporary.
Considering the historical importance of this contest it is quite surprising that it has taken so long fore the various versions of The Judgment of Paris to have been recorded. It was only in 2009 that Chandos released a recording of Eccles' version, directed by Christian Curnyn, which is followed now by Daniel Purcell's setting. The latter is a remarkably good piece which makes the lack of any previous recording all the more surprising.
It is not known with absolute certainty how Daniel and Henry Purcell were related. It is mostly assumed that Daniel was Henry's younger brother, but some scholars believe that he was his cousin. Whatever the truth may be, they must have been pretty close as Daniel completed Henry's semi-opera The Indian Queen after the latter's death in 1695. Although educated as an organist and acting as keyboard teacher for many years the largest part of Daniel's compositional output comprises music for the stage. This opera is certainly reminiscent of the semi-operas as written by Henry, and more generally the music for the theatre of the 17th century, with its mixture of spoken text and music. However, it shows a strong influence of Italian opera, especially in the arias which are technically demanding and include a considerable amount of coloratura. It is very different from the setting by Eccles which is of a more pastoral character.
Daniel creates clear contrasts between the various characters by means of different instrumental scorings. The strongest contrast is between Venus, the goddess of love, and Pallas, the goddess of war. The former is accompanied by recorders whereas in the arias of the second a trumpet is involved, often together with timpani, especially in the instrumental symphonies. In the performance this contrast is underlined by the casting: Amy Freston has a strong voice with some sharp edges, whereas Anna Dennis's voice is much sweeter, perfectly matching the sound of the recorders. It is probably less easy to tell Ms Freston and Ciara Hendrick apart; the latter is a mezzo, but in character they are not that different. Samuel Boden sings the role of Paris, the shepherd who must decide which of the three goddesses is the most beautiful. This part has a rather high range; it suggests an haute-contre as we know it from French music. Boden masters his part very well and has no problems with the top notes. Ashley Riches is Mercury, the messenger of the gods who introduces the story, but doesn't participate in the ensuing course of events. There are several choruses which - in the tradition of English theatrical music - repeat the last words of one of the protagonists, largely to the same music. Julian Perkins believes that Purcell made a mistake by including the first chorus too late. He has 'corrected' this, so to speak, by composing a chorus following the duet by Mercury and Paris, 'Happy thou of Human Race' (No. 9). He defends this by stating that the performance of pasticcios was very much part of the semi-opera tradition.
I am generally quite happy about this performance. My main problem is the fact that most singers use a little too much vibrato, although it is mostly not very wide. Its most damaging effect comes in the trio of the goddesses, 'Hither turn to me again' (No. 14) where the voices don't blend all that well. Although it is regrettable it has hardly spoiled my enjoyment, especially because the five singers deliver such good interpretations of their respective roles and deal with the coloratura so well. Among the highlights are 'Hither turn thee gentle Swain' (Venus, No. 14) and 'Awake, awake, thy spirits raise' (Pallas, No. 20). In 'Gentle Shepherd' (No. 29) Venus is accompanied by a harp. I don't know whether this is indicated in the score; it was a brilliant decision anyway as the result is an exquisite piece of music.
The historical importance of the contest of 1700 and the quality of Purcell's music are reason enough to justify this recording. As Finger's setting has been lost, that leaves John Weldon's. I searched the internet and learned that it was once recorded for BBC Radio 3 by The Consort of Musicke, but it seems that it never made it to CD. I haven't found any other recordings. A good recording would be welcome to complete the picture of an interesting aspect of English music history.
Johan van Veen (© 2015)