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Concert reviews

Festival Early Music Utrecht 2022

The 41st edition of the Utrecht Early Music Festival was the first after the COVID-19 pandemic that could take place without any restrictions, unlike last year when only two thirds of the concert venues could be used. Even so, the number of visitors did not reach the level of 2019, the last before the pandemic. There may have been several reasons for this. One: the COVID-19 virus is still going around, and as a substantial number of early music lovers are at an advanced age, they may not have felt very comfortable at concerts with so many people being so closely together. Second: the rising inflation and quickly rising prices of energy may have resulted in people not taking too many financial risks.

The programme was interesting enough, as it always is. That does not mean that it did not raise questions, as it nearly always does. The overall theme was galanterie. Every music lover then immediately thinks of that period in music history in which the galant idiom, which had its origin in Naples, was conquering Europe. Roughly speaking, the galant style was the dominant force in European music from around 1730 until well into the last quarter of the 18th century. Obviously, it is impossible to build a whole festival on this small part of music history. Neapolitan music could not be part of the programme anyway, as the 2019 festival had entirely been devoted to Naples. Among the best-known representatives of the galant style was Johann Christian Bach. However, he played only a marginal role in the programme. The festival rather focused on his brother Carl Philipp Emanuel. From a musical point of view that was a good choice, especially as in the past his music has not been that often performed, and a large part of his oeuvre may be unknown to most of the audiences at the festival. Historically speaking, treating him like a 'composer in residence' is not unproblematic. There are certainly galant elements in his oeuvre, but he is generally considered - and rightly so - as one of the main representatives of two other movements in 18th-century music history, known as Empfindsamkeit and Sturm und Drang respectively.

This was not the only way the theme was extended. For many music lovers, early music means music of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. They had to find something of their liking too. In his introductory note, the festival's director, Xavier Vandamme, emphasized that galanterie generally deals about the right behaviour of people on all levels of everyday life. He specifically referred to one particular treatise, which has received much fame: Il Libro del cortegiano by Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529), a practical handbook for life at a royal court. That was certainly useful, and Paul Van Nevel, with his Huelgas Ensemble, devoted a concert to Castiglione and his world. The danger of such an extension of the theme is obvious: it may become so general, that it loses it special meaning. Fortunately, it was avoided to connect each single concert to the theme. It is simply impossible to construct a connection between a concert with, for instance, madrigals by Philippe Verdelot or of sacred music from Gesualdo's Naples with the theme of 'galanterie'.

CPE Bach and his time: Vocal music
Let me start with reporting about three concerts of vocal music by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and contemporaries. The opening concert was given by the Netherlands Bach Society under the direction of Shunske Sato [2]. The centenary of this ensemble was the reason that it was artist in residence. One hundred years ago the ensemble was founded with the aim of performing the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, and especially his Passions. Over the years it has also performed music by other composers, but I can't remember having heard any music by CPE Bach from the ensemble. In the festival it performed Emanuel's Magnificat for the first time in its existence. Father and son both composed a Magnificat, but the setting of the old Bach is much better known than that of his son. Anyone who has never heard the latter work may experience it as a shock to hear Emanuel's version. The former is divided into a number of relatively short sections, for solo voice(s) or the entire ensemble. In Emanuel's version, the number of movements is smaller and the arias are longer, more technically demanding and above all strongly influenced by opera. The soprano and tenor arias are full of coloratura. The alto aria 'Suscepit Israel', on the other hand, is a beautiful lyrical piece, which was subtly sung by Reginald Mobley. He performed for the first time in the festival, and for me he was one of this year's revelations. Kristen Witmer, Marcel Beekman and Felix Schwandtke all delivered good performances, although the former was sometimes a bit too loud. The vocal ensemble consisted of twelve singers, including the four soloists. That was enough to realize the tutti sections. The Magnificat was performed in the version of 1786, when Emanuel included it in a concert that also comprised the Credo from Johann Sebastian's Mass in B minor. Sections from this were also performed during this concert. Highlights were the Crucifixus and the ensuing 'Et resurrexit'. In between we heard one of CPE Bach's string symphonies.

Later in the festival there was a chance to hear his oratorio Die Israeliten in der Wüste [31], which describes the revolt of the people of Israel, on their way from Egypt to the promised land, against Moses – and ultimately against God – because of the hardships along the way, such as the lack of drinking water. Moses knows how to pacify the people and turn away the wrath of God. It is a dramatic episode in the history of Israel, as told in the book of Exodus. From this Emanuel has made an oratorio that has the features of an opera, with virtuoso arias and dramatic choral parts, which cannot fail to make a strong impression on an audience. The dramatic nature of the oratorio came off pretty well in the performance by the ensemble Gli Angeli Genève under the direction of Stephan MacLeod, who also sang the part of Moses. His brother Aaron's part was taken by the tenor Valerio Contaldo and the two Israelite women were portrayed by Marie Lys and Zoë Brookshaw. The arias were sung excellently and there was no lack of drama, neither in the arias not in the choruses. Stylistically, the performance was less convincing: the solos - with the exception of Contaldo's - were marred by an incessant vibrato, as were the choral parts, sung by the soloists with ripienists. The importance of the performance of this work in the festival cannot be overrated. It is available in several CD recordings, but hardly ever performed in public. This performance had its shortcomings, but it may have convinced the audience that CPE Bach's vocal music deserves to be taken seriously.

The third large-scale vocal work was a Passion, not by CPE Bach, but rather his father, his godfather Telemann and Carl Heinrich Graun, one of the main composers in the service of Frederick the Great. In the Netherlands - unlike in other countries - it is not customary to perform Passion music outside Passion time. When René Jacobs performed Bach's St Matthew Passion a few years ago, the festival director thought it necessary to defend this. Apparently he did not feel the need this time, when the Netherlands Bach Society, again under the direction of Shunske Sato, performed the Passion pasticcio Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt [17]. There are quite a few questions about this work that have not yet been answered. Who put together this pasticcio? May it have been Bach? And is he indeed - as is assumed - the composer of the arioso 'So heb ich denn mein Auge sehnlich auf', which does not appear in any other work? Either way, it's an impressive work that deserves to be performed more often. Hopefully this performance in the festival can contribute to this piece becoming better known. Unfortunately the work was not performed complete. The entire performance lasted about 80 minutes, whereas the two CD recordings of this work both take almost two hours. Overall, the performance was very convincing. Again I was impressed by the alto Reginald Mobley, who showed his qualities in his aria and in a duet with Kristen Witmer, who convinced me more here than before in Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach's Magnificat. Felix Schwandtke and Marcel Beekman delivered excellent performances, although the latter was not always very subtle. I was very pleased with the way Sato approached this work and especially his performance of the chorales, often a weak point in performances of German sacred music.

Frederick the Great and his time: Instrumental music
Before returning to CPE Bach, whose music took an important part in the traditional series of keyboard recitals, let me focus first on other music from the mid-18th century. Obviously, the court of Frederick the Great and the composers who were connected to it, were an important part of this festival's programme. Frederick was not only a great music lover, but he also gathered together some of the best German musicians and composers of his time at his court. Thanks to him, composers such as the brothers Graun and Benda, Christoph Schaffrath, Johann Joachim Quantz and many others were able to develop their talents. Frederick was also a fanatic player of the transverse flute; he even composed for his own instrument. His sonatas and concertos are not regarded highly by musicologists; according to them, they are of no more than mediocre quality. The question is whether they really ever heard those pieces, played according to the customs of the time. If they had heard Aysha Wills [22], in collaboration with Octavie Dostaler-Lalonde (cello) and Artem Belogurov (fortepiano), they might have changed their mind. She played four sonatas and in between a sonata by his sister, Wilhelmine. I could find nothing in those sonatas to justify the negative judgment. The slow movements were definitely expressive; two sonatas started with a recitativo. The fast parts showed something of Frederik's technique: it must have been very advanced, because they contain all kinds of technical challanges. Aysha Wills proved to be the ideal advocate for Frederick's music: her technique was impeccable, she produced a beautiful tone and delivered a compelling musical oration. Also thanks to a beautiful instrument – ??a copy of one of Frederick's own flutes – and her devoted partners, this was a very entertaining concert, which should lead to a revision of the assessment of Frederick the Great as a composer.

Frederick was not the only one who revered the flute. In the course of the second quarter of the 18th century it had developed into one of the favourite instruments of the amateurs of those days, at the cost of the recorder. It is difficult to say whether they also played pieces without accompaniment. In any case, Telemann composed twelve fantasias primarily for amateurs. These are very varied pieces in the goût réuni, of which Telemann was a representative. Two of those fantasias were performed by Rachel Brown [18]. She started her programme with the most famous piece for solo flute, the Partita in A by Johann Sebastian Bach, a technically demanding but expressive work. The same characteristics apply to the sonata in the same key by his son Carl Philipp Emanuel. Mainly because of the empfindsam character, this piece may be even more complicated. The fourth composer in the programme was Johann Joachim Quantz, Frederick the Great's flute teacher. He may have used the capriccios and fantasias that Rachel Brown played, as exercise material, because that's what they're meant for. However, that does not mean that they are musically uninteresting. Quantz was a better composer than his reputation suggests. That came out well in Rachel Brown's performances. Her playing skills and breathing technique were impressive. She used it for differentiated and expressive interpretations.

It was not only the recorder that gradually lost its appeal. That also happened to the viola da gamba. Therefore a recital with music for viola da gamba may have come as a surprise in a festival largely devoted to music from the mid-18th century. However, in Berlin, at the court of Frederick the Great, the viola da gamba was still held in high esteem. This was largely due to Ludwig Christian Hesse, who was a member of the court chapel and who was equal in salary to Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. His colleagues composed concertos and sonatas for him. Two of them were included in a concert by Noémi Lenhof (viola da gamba) and Guillaume Haldenwang (harpsichord) [32]. The programme opened with the Sonata in A for obbligato harpsichord and viola da gamba by Christoph Schaffrath and ended with a movement from the Trio in G by Johann Gottlieb Graun, written for viola da gamba, harpsichord and basso continuo, but performed here in an arrangement for viola da gamba and obbligato harpsichord. In between were some pieces by father and son Forqueray. The latter was in close contact with Crown Prince Frederick William, the nephew of Frederick the Great. He was an enthusiastic gambist and visited Forqueray in Paris. Since then, the latter acted as his teacher at a distance, by way of letters. It was an interesting confrontation, because the differences between Forqueray on the one hand and the German gamba works on the other were clearly audible. Even greater was the contrast with the Sonata in D by Andreas Lidl. He was more or less an outsider in the programme, because he had no connections with the court in Berlin. He was both gambist and player of the baryton, and this trio could easily be played on the latter instrument. It is a purely classical work and with that we were in a very different world from Forqueray's. I didn't know Noémie Lenhof and Guillaume Haldenwang. I was impressed by their playing; it seems like two names to keep an eye on. They had put together their programme intelligently, and as a resukt the stylistic differences were clearly notable.

Across Europe it was the cello that overshadowed the viola da gamba. Despite the continuing popularity of the gamba, the cello made its appearance in Germany as well. Octavie Dostaler-Lalonde and Victor García García (cello), with Artem Belogurov on fortepiano [8], played four sonatas; only the Sonata in A by Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach enjoys any fame. The three other works, by Franz Benda, Christoph Schaffrath and Anton Fils, are by no means part of the standard repertoire. With Benda and Schaffrath we are again at the court of Frederick the Great, whereas Fils was working in Mannheim. The latter composed a set of sonatas for cello and basso continuo, which was published as his opus 5. From this the performers had selected the first sonata, which stood out for the use of the high registers. This was made possible in part by the instrument that Octavie Dostaler-Lalonde played: a cello by Johann Michael Alban, which is smaller than the 'normal' baroque cello; the difference was immediately apparent visually by comparison with the cello that Victor García García played in the continuo. The instrument has a lighter sound and is tuned higher. According to the musicians, this instrument fits in with a large part of the repertoire composed for the cello in Germany in the mid-18th century. Unfortunately this repertoire is seldom performed and that is why this concert was so interesting, apart from the instrument Octavie Dostaler-Lalonde played with such enthusiasm and technical skill. At the festival you sometimes you get acquainted with musicians that you have never heard before and who make a strong impression. That was the case here; these are three people to keep an eye on. I expect many good things from them.

One of the genres that came into existence in the mid-18th century and developed into one of the most popular in the classical period was the quartet: an ensemble of four strings or a wind instrument with a string trio. The form was new, the genre in itself was not: there is no watershed between the quartets of Telemann, for example, and those of the classical period. In the meantime, quartets of many different complexions were written. Early quartets for oboe and string trio took center stage in a concert by Georg Fritz (oboe), Eva Saladin (violin), Sonoko Asabuki (viola) and Daniel Rosin (cello) [27]. The programme opened with a quatuor by Johann Gottlieb Janitsch, which is still very baroque and shows a strong affinity with Telemann's quartets. At the center of the concert was a sonata à quadro by Johann Melchior Molter, which has the characteristics of a solo concerto, with violin, viola and cello as ripieno instruments. The last piece was by Johann Christian Bach, and this work is already a real classical work in its structure. In between was a string trio by Boccherini, and this genre is really classical in origin. Finally, there was a duet for violin and cello by Johann Georg Albrechtsberger - in fact a prelude and fugue, which does not surprise, given that Albrechtsberger was one of the most important keyboard composers of his time and was considered a champion of the contrapuntal tradition. The four musicians provided excellent performances, with perfect ensemble and nice solo contributions. It is clear that there is still a lot to discover in the repertoire from the period between the Baroque and the Classical period.

During the concert devoted to sonatas by Frederick the Great, one sonata by his sister Wilhelmine was played. The lutenist Konstantin Shchenikov and the Butter Quartet [34]performed a concert of music from the court in Bayreuth, where she lived after her marriage to to Margrave Frederik van Bayreuth. She wa an enthusiastic lutenist, and that is why lutenists as Paul Charles Durant, Bernhard Joachim Hagen and Adam Falckenhagen played an important role at her court. All three were represented in the programme. It started with a duet for violin and lute by Durant, followed by a trio for lute, violin and cello by Hagen. The last work was a concerto for lute and strings by Falckenhagen. Prior to that, a string quartet by Maddalena Laura Lombardini Sirmen was performed. I didn't quite understand the choice of that work, because this lady played all over Europe, but I am not aware of any connection with Bayreuth or Wilhelmine. Anyway, it's a nice work and was played very well by the Butter Quartet, with nice dynamic contrasts. This is another ensemble to keep an eye on. I didn't know Shchenikov; he seems to be an excellent lutenist, and the collaboration with the quartet was immaculate. The concert gave an interesting insight into musical life at the court in Bayreuth.

What happened in Germany took place elsewhere too. Nevermind [3] played a programme of French music from the mid-18th century. Anna Besson (transverse flute), Louis Creac'h (violin), Robin Pharo (viola da gamba) and Jean Rondeau (harpsichord) have developed into one of the best chamber music formations. They don't shy away from the standard repertoire (Bach, Telemann), but also like to explore uncommon stuff. Jean-Baptiste Quentin and Louis-Gabriel Guillemain were two of the best violinists of their time and colleagues of Leclair. Their chamber music certainly corresponds to the ideal of the time, as expressed in the title of the concert: 'Conversations galantes'. But this gallantry does not prevent some pieces from being technically demanding, such as the violin part in Guillemain's Sonata III from his Premier livre de sonatas en quatuors of 1743. The other works also belonged to the then popular genre of the quartet. This means that, in principle, all four parts are treated equally. There was no lack of virtuosity in Nevermind's playing, but I especially liked the slow movements, which were performed expressively and with great intensity and subtlety. This also dispelled the prejudice that gallant music is by definition superficial and goes in one ear and out the other.

Two instruments became very popular in mid-18th century France: the hurdy-gurdy and the musette. The latter instrument took centre stage in a concert by Jean-Pierre Van Hees, assisted by members of the Bach Academy Alden Biesen led by Luc Ponet [20]. The musette was associated with the countryside, which tt the time was idealized as the place where life was good, a kind of Arcadia - the ideal (imaginary) world of the higher echelons of society in the baroque era. References to the countryside frequently appear in French music of the time, for example in a term like champêtre. The musette was also imitated by other instruments. But the instrument itself could also shine in sonatas and concertos and figured as an obbligato instrument in cantatas. Specimens were heard in the programme. Two instrumental works were from the pen of Nicolas Chédeville, the composer who tried to market his own sonatas as works by Vivaldi. He also composed a concerto for the musette, which is based on Vivaldi's Four Seasons. The programme opened with a cantata by Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre, Lisle de Délos. Much less known is Jean-Baptiste Dupuits (des Bricettes); three arias from his cantata Le Retour de Thémire closed the programme. The vocal works were sung by Deborah Cachet. Although she should have used a little less vibrato, her performances were excellent. She brought some life into the concert, because as a whole this event was a bit disappointing. Jean-Pierre Van Hees is undoubtedly an excellent musette player, but sat on stage like an office clerk. He barely responded to the applause except for a frugal nod. If you play a little-known instrument, you really need to do something more to bring it closer to the audience. The ensemble as a whole should do something about its presentation. The flautist and violinist appeared to be very young and at the beginning of their careers. They are good players, but had not much substantial to add. In some pieces a cello was used in the basso continuo and that was not such a good idea, because at least where I was seated, it was too loud, at the expense of the musette. That instrument deserved more than what came out in this concert.

The last concert brings us to Switzerland, but the programme was really European. Eva Saladin [36] played a programme of violin sonatas that was inspired by a collection of instrumental music brought together by Lucas Sarasin (1730-1802), who belonged to one of Basel's most famous patrician families. Part of that collection was a large number of violin sonatas - was, because the largest part of the collection has been lost, including all violin sonatas. However, the catalogue has been preserved, which makes it possible, with the help of other sources, to compile a programme that gives an impression of what Sarasin collected. He had a broad taste: it contained sonatas that stylistically belong to the baroque period (Locatelli) and pieces composed in the galant idiom, such as a sonata by Sarasin's violin teacher Gaspard Fritz, which opened the programme. There was also a completely unknown name: Jean-Baptiste Miroglio was of Italian origin and settled in Paris. The last work was interesting: a sonata by Franz Benda, which is preserved in a manuscript, which includes embellishments by the composer himself. This offers a lot of information about the ornamentation practice of his time. It was a very nice concert, both in composition and performance. Eva Saladin is a technically gifted and stylish player, who knows how to bring out the characteristics of a piece in an eloquent and communicative way. She was assisted by Daniel Rosin (cello) - who gave a beautiful performance of a sonata by Willem de Fesch - and Johannes Keller (harpsichord).

CPE Bach and his time: Keyboard music
Next keyboard music: a series of keyboard recitals is a fixed part of each festival. They take place in the Lutheran Church, which is the ideal venue for this kind of concerts. This year, the series was introduced at the Fundatie van Renswoude (a beautiful historical building from 1761, built as an orphanage), before the official opening of the festival. Artem Belogurov and Menno van Delft [1] demonstrated five instruments that were in use during the mid-18th century. These were two original instruments: a tangent piano by Schmahl from 1790 and a so-called clavecin royal, a kind of fortepiano, but with a somewhat more pregnant sound. These were also the instruments that were perhaps least known to the public. The tangent piano can be heard almost exclusively on CD and is rarely played in concerts. The clavecin royal is a rather curious instrument, which is even rarely used for recordings. There were also three copies: a harpsichord after Gräbner, a fortepiano after Silbermann (1749) and a clavichord after Friederici. The latter instrument can also be heard almost exclusively on CD, because in most concert halls it is barely audible due to its very soft sound. Van Delft therefore played it in a separate room, in which half of the visitors could find a place. He then repeated the program for the other half. Most of the recital was filled with pieces for two keyboards. We heard music performed in a combination of instruments that is relative uncommon to modern ears. In the 18th century these instruments were used simultaneously, except the clavichord. Unusual, for example, was the presto from Wilhelm Friedemann Bach's Concerto a due cembali, which is mostly played on two harpsichords, but here on tangent piano and fortepiano, which produced a completely different sound. We also heard pieces by little-known composers, such as Johann Gottfried Müthel, Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch (the son of Johann Friedrich) and Johann Abraham Peter Schulz. This concert was announced as a 'lecture recital', which means that the two keyboard players explained the characteristics of the various instruments in relation to the music. They did so in a most eloquent manner, which made this event a real ear opener. The music received engaging performances, and this way the instruments and their characteristics came to real life.

Jean Rondeau, Andreas Staier and Anders Muskens all played music by CPE Bach and by his father and brothers. They did so on different instruments. It is not clear on which instrument the music from the mid-18th century should be played. It depends on the preference of the performer and also the character of the work. Not every piece flourishes on every instrument. As far as I know, Jean Rondeau [14] does not play fortepiano, so the choice for the harpsichord was an obvious one. He started with three sonatas by CPE Bach, which he played almost without interruption. This resulted in a beautiful panorama of the emotions that the composer expresses in his keyboard works and the way in which the moods constantly change. It was his belief that a musician must first have felt the emotions himself before he can perform the music. That seemed to be the case with Rondeau. He was, as it were, immersed in the music and seemed barely aware of the presence of a listening audience. This led to very intense and penetrating performances, with the highlights being the slow parts, which were given very expressive performances. After a short work by Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, which in terms of expression was not inferior to his brother's sonatas, Rondeau ended his fine recital with a relatively relaxed sonata by Carl Philipp Emanuel, one of the so-called Prussian Sonatas.

Andreas Staier [23] - one of the greats in historical keyboard playing - made an appearance in a harpsichord recital with the eloquent title 'Untamed - well-tempered'. The first term refers to Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, who gives free rein to his imagination in many of his keyboard works. The second word refers to his father; Staier played two pairs of preludes and fugues from the second volume of the Well-Tempered Clavier. Staier started his recital with one of those couples. Halfway through, he played a fugue by Emanuel, in which the difference in style with his father's fugues was very striking. The part of the programme devoted to his music started with the first of the six Württemberg Sonatas, in which he does not deviate very far from the style of his father. He indulged his fantasy in the subsequent variations on Les Folies d'Espagne. The last item was the Sonata in G minor (Wq 65,17), in which we meet the Emanuel Bach who is rightly regarded the most prominent exponent of the Empfindsamkeit. Here he takes liberties that he avoids in the earlier sonata. The recital ended with another prelude and fugue from the Well-Tempered Clavier. Staier is a master of the keyboard, whether that be the harpsichord or the fortepiano. It was a highly captivating recital and it is a pity that he appears so seldom at the festival.

Anders Muskens [9] played a programme with music by the sons of Johann Sebastian Bach. He did not use a harpsichord or fortepiano, but a tangent piano, and that was an interesting experience, because, as I mentioned above, this instrument can be heard almost exclusively on CD and is rarely played in concerts. Muskens started with the Fantasia in E by Wilhelm Friedemann, who mixes baroque and contemporary elements in his oeuvre. In this case it was a late work, which justifies the use of the tangent piano by Schmahl. The piece has strong improvisational features and contains a few passages that refer to the recitative. It is an exciting piece and that came perfectly off in Muskens' interpretation. This work was followed by two sonatas from different collections of keyboard pieces that Carl Philipp Emanuel published für Kenner und Liebhaber - for professional musicians and amateurs. Muskens had selected two sonatas in which slow or moderate tempi dominate. The sensitivity - the hallmark of music in the empfindsam style - was expressed to full extent here through a differentiated choice of tempo and an optimal use of the dynamic possibilities of the tangent piano. The concluding work sounded very different: the fifth sonata from Opus 17 by Johann Christian Bach, which is a real specimen of the galant style, but also points to the classical period. As so many galant pieces, it has only two movements, both at a fast pace, but different. That was perfectly expressed in Muskens' performance. One might wonder whether the tangent piano is the right instrument for the 'London Bach', since such instruments were used almost exclusively in Germany. Musically, however, it was completely convincing. In short, a beautiful recital with fascinating music and excellent interpretations.

One of the greatest promoters of the galant style was Johann Mattheson, who has become known almost exclusively as a theorist. He was also active as a composer, and it was nice that the French harpsichordist Jean-Christophe Dijoux [28] dedicated his recital to him. He had divided the programme into four chapters. In the first two he demonstrated the French and Italian influences in Mattheson's music, including music by Lully in harpsichord arrangements, and Benedetto Marcello. The third chapter dealt with the polemical side of Mattheson: Dijoux played a piece by Johann Heinrich Buttstedt, a composer regarded by Mattheson as a relic of the past. It is ironic that his Capriccio was followed by a fugue by Mattheson. The closing section was dedicated to the Grosse General-Bass-Schule, containing pieces for the performer to work out. Dijoux played three. It was a very interesting and musically entertaining whole, which unfortunately was attended by a rather small audience. Mattheson and Dijoux deserved better.

Some of the most extraordinary music was performed by Mitzi Meyerson [4]. Born in Bohemia, Joseph Anton Steffan was a celebrated keyboard virtuoso in his day, who mainly worked in Vienna, where he became the teacher of the later French queen Marie Antoinette. Nowadays he is almost forgotten, but in recent years some CD recordings of his oeuvre have been released. This includes a disc that Mitzi Meyerson dedicated to him; from the programme of that recording she played three specimens. They are very peculiar works, unusual for the time and containing all kinds of theatrical and narrative elements. Some parts or passages are downright bizarre. In her explanations during the recital, Meyerson pointed to the dynamic clues that suggest that Steffan conceived his sonatas for the fortepiano. She played a harpsichord and the challenge is to realize the dynamic contrasts on it as well as possible through manual and register changes and agogic options that are at the disposal of a harpsichordist. She impressively succeeded, and partly because of this her recital may well have convinced the listener that Steffan's music is more than worthy of being explored. Meyerson's performances were excellent, and it was nice to see how her facial expressions reflected the character of the music.

Some recitals were devoted to French music. Louise Acabo [19] played a programme with suites by Gaspard Le Roux and Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre. The latter tried to survive as a composer in a male-dominated world and she succeeded quite well. In any case, it has led to her music not being neglected. That is not the case with Le Roux: although his music is available on different recordings, he is not exactly a household name. A special feature is that his suites can be played on both one and two harpsichords. They start with a short prelude, which is followed by then usual dances. Some also include a character piece, and a chaconne is unavoidable in French music. Louise Acabo played one suite by Jacquet de La Guerre and three by Le Roux. Hopefully that will lead to his becoming better known, because he deserves it. Acabo's playing was rather restrained and that fit the music, which is rarely exuberant. Restraint has long been an ideal in France. However, the concert ended with an anything but introverted piece: Le Roux' Sarabande en douze couplets, which Glen Wilson once characterized as "the most brilliant and Italian variations of the whole French harpsichord school". That came perfectly off in Louise Acabo's performance: here she really let her hair down. It brought this beautiful recital to an exciting conclusion.

Not only the viola da gamba, but also the harpsichord lost its ground in France in the course of the 18th century. One of the last representatives of the French harpsichord school was Jacques Duphly. His last works can be played on fortepiano, but he himself preferred the harpsichord. There are few dances left in his oeuvre; he wrote almost exclusively character pieces. They are very different in character. Carole Cerasi [33] had made a selection for her recital. There was a strong contrast, for example, between La Victoire and Les Grâces. Cerasi opened the programme with the exciting chaconne from the third book. Towards the end, she played La Forqueray, in which Duphly musically portrays his colleague. Cerasi also played some pieces by Claude-Bénigne Balbastre, who does not have such a great reputation, as many of his keyboard works are considered somewhat superficial. We heard a Noël, usually played on the organ, and a character piece, La Lugeac. The latter is not a bad piece, but a little too much aimed at effect. It was a fine ending to a captivating and beautifully played recital in which Carole Cerasi was in excellent form. Her oral explanations were helpful in placing Duphly and his music in their historical context.

Galanterie in the Middle Ages and Renaissance
The connection between galanterie and the music of Middle Ages and Renaissance is not that far-fetched. One of the central subjects of medieval poetry is fin amor. The songs tell us of the courtly play between lovers, driven by desire and suffering. This was demonstrated in music from the 12th and 13th centuries, by troubadours and trouvères. Among the oldest repertoire were two lais (epic poems) by a little-known poetess from the second half of the 12th century, known as Marie de France, to whom the ensemble Moirai [29] devoted a concert. Not much is known about Marie de France, but she was probably a noblewoman and lived and worked at the English court. Her lais are written in Anglo-Norman, an Old French dialect spoken there. No music has survived, so Mara Winter (flute) and Félix Verry (fiddle) played their own music, which was derived from medieval sources. Their playing was not so much an accompaniment of Hanna Marti, who told the story, singing and reciting the lyrics, but rather an illustration of the story. Marti's account of two rather amusing love stories and the instrumental illustrations were very effective. Fortunately, Dutch and English translations were projected on a screen, otherwise they would have eluded the listeners. The two stories were separated by an instrumental piece, in which Marti joined her colleagues on the harp. It was a very entertaining performance, thanks to Marie de France's storytelling and the way the three members of Moirai presented it. Storytelling was once a recurring theme of the festival. This was storytelling at its best.

In the Middle Ages poems were not meant to be read in silence or to be recited, but to be sung. Unfortunately only a relatively few have been preserved with music. In other cases, performers have to turn to other music in order to make them heard, as we have just seen. This was a recurring subject of the concerts with medieval songs during the festival. Anne Azéma (voice and hurdy-gurdy) and Shira Kammen (fiddle and harp) [5] were responsible for two concerts. First they presented a programme with music by troubadours from 12th- and 13th-century France, entitled 'Love on a pedestal'. It opened and closed with Martin Codax, and in between we heard songs by Giraut de Bornelh, Bernart de Ventadorn and Aimeric de Peguilhan. Both artists are specialists in this repertoire and that showed: the performances were completely natural, without any artificiality. The two ladies are masters of communication, which was just as well as there were no supertitles. The lack of music is just one of the problems performers have to solve. Another one is that troubadours probably accompanied themselves, but how, with which instruments and on what music? This is a matter of speculation, and performers take different solutions, as the various concerts during the festival showed. That was another interesting aspect of this part of this year's festival. In this case, the accompaniments were improvised by Shira Kammen. Anyone who thinks that medieval music cannot be virtuosic, may never have heard Ms Kammen. She is a really great artist, and her improvisations were technically impressive, but also an excellent match of the vocal parts. Despite the absence of translations of the sung texts, this was a very fascinating concert.

The second concert was not what it was meant to be. Anne Azéma was unable to sing because she had lost her voice. The audience was expecting a programme of music, selected around the Roman de la Rose [15]. Among the poet-composers were Thibaut de Champagne, Jehan de Lescurel and Gauthier d'Espinal. It was decided to perform all the pieces instrumentally, alternated with texts from the Roman de la Rose, recited by Anne Azéma, who fortunately was able to speak. It was a very different concert, but certainly not disappointing. In concerts of medieval music, instrumental pieces are mostly played as a kind of interludes. It does not happen that often that the instruments are in the centre of attention, and therefore this was quite a unique event. It was nice to hear such instruments as hurdy-gurdy, harp, viol, rebec, gittern and various flutes in full glory, brilliantly played by Shira Kammen, Susanne Ansorg and Mara Winter. It resulted in a fascinating concert that aroused great enthusiasm from the audience. A small disaster turned into something very beautiful.

One of the artists in residence was Marc Mauillon [13]. He is usually referred to as a baritone, but his voice is such that he can sing tenor parts with ease. In the repertoire he performed in his first concert, the pitch of the voice is not that important. He presented a survey of the troubadour repertoire from the beginning to the end of the 12th century, with songs by Girault de Bornelh, Bernart de Ventadorn, Guiraut Riquier and Richard Lionheart. The latter is considered one of the last representatives of the genre. Mauillon has the ideal voice for this repertoire: light and agile. In addition, his diction is excellent and he has the communication skills needed to bring these songs to life. As I already indicated, it was quite interesting to compare his performances with those of Anne Azéma. Little is known with certainty about the interpretation and in particular about the role of instruments. While Azéma limited herself to a modest (improvised) accompaniment on fiddle and harp, Mauillon was accompanied by Angélique Mauillon (harp) and Pierre Hamon, who played various types of flute, as well as bagpipes and drum. The instrumental part was more than accompaniment; it also served as an introduction and as an interlude or epilogue. We will probably never know who is closer to the truth. In any case, it was a very nice and entertaining concert.

The problem of poems having been preserved without the original music also manifests itself in the oeuvre of Walther von der Vogelweide, one of the most important poets in the German-speaking world around 1200. To him the ensemble Per-Sonat, directed by Sabine Lutzenberger [24], devoted a concert. Marc Lewon, lutenist and tenor, had reconstructed a few songs, which he performed himself, accompanying himself on the lute, very much according to the custom of the time. A few other songs were performed by Sabine Lutzenberger to music which Baptiste Romain, player of the fiddle and bagpipes, had written in the style of the time. It is nice that in this way poems that would otherwise remain unknown - except among experts - can be performed. Both Lutzenberger and Lewon understand the art of communication. The songs were alternated by instrumental pieces, brilliantly executed by Romain, Lewon and Elisabeth Rumsey (fiddle). Some of them were even quite exciting.

The Friends of the festival are one of its main pillars. Through their financial contributions and their presence at concerts and other activities, they contribute to keeping early music in the Netherlands in business. The festival rewards them with a special concert, to which they have priority access (although others are also welcome). The Sollazzo Ensemble, directed by Anna Danilevskaia [7], had been invited to perform this concert. That is easy to understand: it is one of the most interesting ensembles in the field of medieval music and has made a strong impression in recent years through concerts and CD recordings. However: is it possible to perform medieval music in a large modern concert hall? The programme, with sacred and secular music by, among others, Matteo da Perugia, Johannes Ciconia and Francesco Landini, was performed in a slightly staged setting. It was all about mirrors, which were carried around on the stage. This may well have been an expression of the programme's starting point: are people of today really so different from those of the Middle Ages? Or: if we listen to medieval music, aren't we actually seeing ourselves in a mirror? That's my interpretation; I do not know whether that is the correct one. Much remained unclear. The ensemble confirmed its reputation: the singing and playing was excellent and the concert was rightly rewarded with great applause. But it also raised questions. Sometimes a piece was acted in a way that seemed more modern than medieval to me. Eight singers in medieval music: isn't that a bit much? Maybe not in the sacred works (although I'm by no means sure of that), but in the secular pieces that seems really too much to me. And then, instrumental music was often played in a combination of wind, string and plucked instruments, which seems rather debatable from a historical point of view. I prefer to hear the Sollazzo Ensemble in a somewhat more intimate setting and in a smaller line-up.

A concert by the Ensemble Leones, directed by Marc Lewon [10], brought us to the Burgundian court, with music by two composers who were not only colleagues, but also personal friends: Guillaume Dufay and Gilles Binchois. The central issue of the programme was the contrafact: a piece whose original text has been replaced by a different one. We heard two examples by Oswald von Wolkenstein: one based on Binchois' Je loe amours, another on his Triste plaisir. A secular text could also be replaced by a sacred one. The programme opened with the anonymous Ave dulce tu frumentum, which is also based on Binchois' Je loe amours. Another example was O incomparabilis virgo, again anonymous, after Dufay's Or me veult. Instrumental arrangements, for instance from the Buxheimer Orgelbuch, were played as lute duets by Lewon and Rui Stähelin. Lewon always has excellent singers at his disposal. Sabine Lutzenberger is an old hand, but still in good voice. Jacob Lawrence made a very good impression at previous festivals; since then he has become even better, as could be heard in this concert. New to me was the soprano Tessa Roos, who has a truly beautiful voice. A name to keep an eye on. Individually and together they delivered impressive performances. Both in the more serious and in the somewhat frivolous parts they managed to get to the heart of the matter. This concert was for me one of the highlights of this festival.

I am a big fan of the ensemble Música Temprana [16]. Its programmes are always interesting and the singers and instrumentalists of the ensemble, led by Adrián Rodríguez Van der Spoel, are always excellent. This was also the case in the concert in this year's festival, which was devoted to a Spanish songbook that was written between 1480 and 1520 and is known as Cancionero de Palacio. The name already indicates that the songs originated in courtly circles. From the more than 400 songs, Rodríguez Van der Spoel had selected a few whose lyrics contain confidential conversations between women. In the programme book he writes: "One imagines the conversations taking place in spaces where men in those days had no business, like the kitchen". That is why in a number of pieces the singers who embodied these female characters - the soprano Olalla Alemán and the mezzo-soprano Luciana Cueto - sat on a kitchen chair at the front of the stage. They are also two of the main pillars of the ensemble: two singers with very beautiful voices who performed the songs in a most expressive manner and were able to communicate their content and the emotions of the protagonists to the audience. In other pieces three further singers were involved: Jan Van Elsacker (tenor), Romain Bockler (bass) and Rodríguez Van der Spoel himself (tenor). In the ensembles, the voices matched perfectly. In this concert everything was just right: an interesting and compelling programme, performed by an outstanding ensemble.

And then we come to the concert I referred to at the start of this review. As Xavier Vandamme explained at the opening concert, the festival was not just about 'gallantry' in a historical sense: the music from what is known as the galant period. More generally, it concerns manners and the way in which people (should) behave in private and public life. A well-known example is the treatise Il Libro del Cortegiano (The Book of the Courtier) by Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529), in which he describes the courtier's requirements, attitudes and manners. How are you going to illustrate that musically? Paul Van Nevel put Castiglione himself at the centre of attention: with his Huelgas Ensemble [12] he shed light on the different phases in his life on the basis of the places where he worked: Milan, Mantua, Urbino, Rome and Toledo. In addition to anonymous items, we heard pieces by Loyset Compère, Bartolomeo Tromboncino and Gaspar van Weerbeke. The programme ended in Toledo, with the Agnus Dei from Francisco de Peñaloso's Missa Ave Maria. The entire ensemble came into action: singers and instrumentalists. The latter aspect was one of the surprises of this concert: the Huelgas Ensemble almost always sings a cappella, both in sacred and secular music. Here, recorders of different pitches were played as well as a crumhorn and a viola da gamba. In one work, a lauda (a spiritual non-liturgical song), even a big drum was used. In addition, some pieces were performed in a combination of one or more voices and instruments, which suited their 'popular' character. This programme was quite different from what we expect from this ensemble. But here too Van Nevel and his singers and players were able to convince completely. A full Cathedral rightly rewarded them with a long applause.

Remaining events
The last section of this review is devoted to concerts that cannot be connected with the festival's theme. One of them was a concert by the ensemble Profeti della Quinta [30], devoted to madrigals by the French composer Philippe Verdelot (c1480/85-1530/32?), who settled in Italy early in his career and played an important role in the development of the madrigal genre. His own madrigals are hardly known; if they are performed at all, it is usually in the arrangements for voice and lute that Adrian Willaert published. It was nice that the ensemble paid attention to the originals. His madrigals, performed by four voices, were alternated with some instrumental works and with madrigals and chansons by Jacques Arcadelt. The latter were performed in a combination of voice and instrument, which - judging by the Willaert edition - was a very common line-up. The tenor Jacob Lawrence, who had already made such a good impression as a member of various ensembles earlier in the festival, was back in business, accompanied by Elam Rotem - the leader of the ensemble - on harpsichord. Very interesting was the performance of several pieces by soprano Giovanna Baviera, who accompanied herself on viola da gamba. She demonstrated a then common practice known as cantar alla viola. Her singing and playing was excellent. The entire concert was a bull's-eye. A beautiful program, performed by an excellent ensemble with four beautiful voices.

A regular guest at the festival is the ensemble Stile Antico [6]. Its programme was devoted to music by women composers and by men who composed for women. An example of the latter was John Bennet, whose madrigal All creatures now are merry minded is part of a collection of madrigals dedicated to Elizabeth I, The Triumphs of Oriana. Oriana was Elizabeth's nickname, and each poem ends with the words "Long live fair Oriana!". Most interesting were the pieces by composers from the 16th and early 17th centuries, all from Italy, and all nuns, who wrote their sacred works primarily for use in their own monastery. They are (still) largely unknown: Raffaella Aleotti is the best known, but few people will have heard of Leonora d'Este, Sulpitia Cesis and Maddalena Casulana. Perhaps a programme like this, which the ensemble also performed elsewhere, may change that. Not only motets were performed, but also madrigals. That is repertoire that one would not immediately associate with Stile Antico. These works were performed with one singer per voice, which is absolutely right. However, the acoustic of the Jacobikerk is not really suitable for this repertoire. The fast figures which illustrate some passages in the text miss a bit of their effect; a more intimate space is needed here. The sacred works came off much better. The large-scale motet Gaude, gaude, gaude Maria by John Sheppard was, in my opinion, the highlight of the concert; that is the core business of the ensemble, and the Jacobikerk is the perfect space for such a piece. The concert concluded with a contemporary work composed for this programme by Joanna Marsh. It's not exactly avant-garde; partly it has its roots in the idiom of the Renaissance. It's a parody piece and you can leave it to a British ensemble to make the most of it. With all due respect to the composer and the performers: I don't need to hear it a second time.

The Cathedral was the perfect venue for a concert by the Officium Ensemble, directed by Pedro Teixeira [21]. The programme consisted of polyphony of the 16th and early 17th centuries. This ensemble was here for the first time in 2015 and returned a year later. It was received with great enthusiasm, and again this year, after six years of absence. I was also very pleased with the ensemble at the time and it is undoubtedly an excellent choir - because that seems the right description of an ensemble of sixteen voices. The core of the programme was the Missa Cantate Domino by the Portuguese composer Duarte Lobo. It's nice that this ensemble is paying attention to its own musical heritage, because Portuguese music from the Renaissance is not that often performed. It would be interesting to hear the concerts from 2015 and 2016 again. Would I still be as positive as I was then? Or has the ensemble changed? Anyway, I wasn't very happy right now. I noted some sharp edges in its sound, especially in the upper voices. In addition, the performances were a bit too straightforward and rigid. I had preferred a somewhat more relaxed sound.

Marco Mencoboni is a artist who likes to search for unknown repertoire. He has already shown this at previous festivals. He was back this year with another interesting and surprising programme, performed by his ensemble Cantar Lontano [25] in the Cathedral. It comprised sacred music from Naples at the time of Carlo Gesualdo. He was the thread in the program: after a recercata by Diego Ortiz, his setting of the responsory O vos omnes from his Sacrae cantiones was performed. His setting of the same text from his Responsoria of 1611 concluded the concert. In between we heard music by composers, who, like Gesualdo, used harmonic means for expressive reasons. Few are as radical as Gesualdo himself, but there were a few striking examples, such as Pomponio Nenna's setting of O vos omnes and a Stabat mater by Scipione Stella. The latter was one of the unknown masters in the program; another was Scipione Dentice. We mainly know Jean de Macque as a composer of keyboard music of a rather unusual character; it was very interesting to hear some of his sacred works here. It was striking that some works by Gesualdo, which are always sung a cappella, were performed here with instruments: cornett, sackbut, viola da gamba and organ. It's great that the 'Monteverdi organ' could be used in the basso continuo. It was used for the first time in the festival last year and was built on the initiative of Krijn Koetsveld. With its bright sound palette it makes a substantial contribution to performances of repertoire from the time around 1600. That was the case here as well. The exciting repertoire and the outstanding performances by singers and instrumentalists made this concert an event to cherish.

When Sébastien Daucé and his Ensemble Correspondances [35] are in town, one can expect something special. Their contribution to this year's festival was no exception. On June 7, 1654, Louis XIV was crowned king in a ceremony that reflected the power of France and its king. In the programme notes, Daucé compared the ceremony in the cathedral of Reims with a theatre production. Although it is not known exactly what music was performed, many data are available which allow for a kind of 'reconstruction' of the event. The main hall of TivoliVredenburg is not a cathedral; actually the acoustics were a bit too dry. On the other hand, the logistics of the hall are such that some of the spatial effects can be realised. Various sections of the programme - for example some plainchant - were sung on the balconies. Light effects were also used: the performance started in a completely darkened hall, after which the musicians strode into the space, accompanied by wind players and drums. The programme featured music by some of the most prominent French composers of the time, such as Étienne Moulinié, Antoine Boësset and Henry du Mont, but also by Francesco Cavalli. Particularly exciting were the contributions of the loud winds: oboes, cornetts, sackbuts, serpent and bassoon. The line-up of the vocal works varied from a solo voice to a large ensemble of voices and instruments. Also special were the contributions of the children, Les Pages et Les Chantres du Centre de Musique Baroque de Versailles, who were rightly put in the spotlight afterwards. It was an extraordinary, interesting and musically captivating production - one of those concerts that will go down into the books as one of the highlights of the festival's history.

Jordi Savall conducted his orchestra Le Concert des Nations [11], in a programme of three works that he called 'tone paintings'. In the course of history, everyday phenomena, such as the seasons, a storm, a war, but also animals and people, have often been depicted in music. Vivaldi's Four Seasons are the best-known example. The first work on the program was Jean-Féry Rebel's Les élémens, which is best known for the strongly dissonant chords with which the piece opens and which portray the chaos before the creation of the world. This is followed by the musical depiction of the four elements, in which all kinds of instruments play a solo role. It was a beautiful performance, although I found the opening a bit too tame. Georg Philipp Telemann was also an enthusiastic tone painter: in his oeuvre one can find quite a few pieces in which he tries to capture extra-musical matters in sounds. He succeeded very well in the Overture in C with the nickname Hamburger Ebb' und Fluth, in which all kinds of mythological figures from the sea are portrayed. When Savall plays or conducts, it never gets boring. That was certainly not the case here, but unfortunately he often does not care very much about what is historically justified. In this piece he added percussion, which Telemann does not require. In one movement, Pedro Estevan even used a wind machine. Such a device was used in the opera, but is completely out of place here. This overture is not intended for the theatre, but as a concert piece for performances at court. The last work was Christoph Willbald von Gluck's ballet music Don Juan. It is a very graphic piece, but the relationship between music and the story is perhaps only clear to those who know that story well. But even without that knowledge it is a fascinating work, which ends with the dramatic Les Furies, which depicts the downfall of Don Juan. It was brilliantly played, and the drama came off to full extent, largely thanks to the contributions of the horns, the trumpet and the percussion.

When historical performance practice was introduced, it was good-bye to orchestras of symphonic size in the performance of solo concertos and concerti grossi. Small became the norm. With time performers have started to realize that performance practice in the baroque period was very differentiated. The standard orchestra did not exist; the size could vary from one instrument per part to many, depending on the circumstances and the occasion. Corelli sometimes performed his concerti grossi with about forty musicians. For special occasions, such as a crowning or a wedding, large ensembles may have been assembled which reflected the importance of the event. However, one may assume that seldom, if ever, such a large ensemble has come together as in 1773, when Louis XV wanted to celebrate the wedding of his grandson and heir to the throne, the Duke of Artois. During the ceremonial wedding dinner - in the opera house of the palace - probably about a hundred musicians played a programme of instrumental music compiled by François Francoeur, head of the royal music department. The 'giant orchestra' that Alexis Kossenko had assembled for a performance of part of Francoeur's programme - Les Ambassadeurs ~ La Grande Écurie [26] - was somewhat more modest in size, but with almost seventy musicians considerably larger than we usually see on the stage of the main hall of TivoliVredenburg during this festival. Francoeur selected pieces from the repertoire of past and present. Apart from pieces of his own pen, we heard music by Rameau, Royer, Dauvergne, Mondonville and Berton. The latter was the unknown quantity in the programme; I can't remember having heard music by him before. Francoeur had divided the programme into four suites, according to key. The role of the brass players was striking, especially the four horns. These, and the one trumpet, which could be heard a few times, differed in sound from what we usually hear. This has to do with the fact that the instruments used in this concert had no finger holes. The instruments of that time did not have these either, but today they are usually added in the interest of intonation. The French trumpeter and horn player Jean-François Madeuf advocates playing instruments without holes, and that's what happened here. They sound a bit less polished and the intonation is much more difficult. But they also bring more colour to the sound of the orchestra. It is nice that Kossenko embraces this new development in his performances. His orchestra made a real feast of the event, which was rightly rewarded with ovations from the audience. Again, this was an event that will be remembered for a long time.

That brings my report from this year's Festival Early Music Utrecht to a close. We can be satisfied with what was on offer. I have expressed by reservations with regard to the choice of this year's theme and the way it was worked out, but I have nothing but praise for the general level of the performances, which was very high. As every year, there was the chance to hear little-known music and become acquainted with less than common performances, for instance on instruments that are seldom played in concerts. It is to be hoped that in the coming years the number of visitors will reach the level of the years before the COVID-19 pandemic. The fact that the largest part of the audience is above 60 years is something of concern. How to attract younger people to concerts of early music is something that needs to be debated. To be honest, I don't have an answer to that question.

Next year's theme will be "Neo". It is not entirely clear what that means and what awaits us. I am sure it will be interesting, as each festival is.

Johan van Veen (© 2022)

[1] Artem Belogurov, Menno van Delft, historical keyboard instruments
August 26, Fundatie van Renswoude
[2] Netherlands Bach Society/Shunske Sato
CPE Bach: Magnificat; JS Bach: Mass in B minor (Credo - exc)
August 26, TivoliVredenburg (large hall)
[3] Nevermind
Guillemain, Quentin
August 27, TivoliVredenburg (Hertz)
[4] Mitzi Meyerson, harpsichord
JA Steffan
August 27, Lutheran Church
[5] Anne Azéma, Shira Kammen
"Troubadours: Love at a pedestal"
August 27, TivoliVredenburg (Cloud Nine)
[6] Stile Antico
"For and by women: Chants from the Renaissance"
August 27, Jacobikerk
[7] Sollazzo Ensemble/Anna Danilevskaia
"Under the same heaven"
August 27, TivoliVredenburg (large hall)
[8] Octavie Dostaler-Lalonde, Victor García García, cello; Artem Belogurov, fortepiano
"Rhapsodic sonatas for cello and fortepiano" (JCF Bach, F Benda, Fils, Schaffrath)
August 27, TivoliVredenburg (Cloud Nine)
[9] Anders Muskens, tangent piano
CPE, JC & WF Bach
August 29, Lutheran Church
[10] Ensemble Leones/Marc Lewon
"Binchois & Dufay: Rendez-vous in Burgundy"
August 29, Pieterskerk
[11] Le Concert des Nations/Jordi Savall
Rebel, Telemann, Gluck
August 29, TivoliVredenburg (large hall)
[12] Huelgas Ensemble/Paul Van Nevel
"The ear of Baldassare Castiglione"
August 29, Cathedral
[13] Marc Mauillon, Angélique Mauillon, Pierre Hamon
"La doussa votz"
August 30, TivoliVredenburg (Hertz)
[14] Jean Rondeau, harpsichord
CPE & WF Bach
August 30, Lutheran Church
[15] Anne Azéma, Shira Kammen, Susanne Ansorg, Mara Winter
"The amorous garden of Guillaume"
August 30, TivoliVredenburg (Hertz)
[16] Música Temprana/Adrián Rodríguez Van der Spoel
"Cancionero de Palacio - Galant confessions"
August 30, Jacobikerk
[17] Netherlands Bach Society/Shunske Sato
Telemann/CH Graun/JS Bach: Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt (Passion pasticcio)
August 30, TivoliVredenburg (large hall)
[18] Rachel Brown, transverse flute
"Transverse flute goes solo" (JS & CPE Bach, Quantz, Telemann)
August 31, TivoliVredenburg (Hertz)
[19] Louise Acabo, harpsichord
Le Roux, Jacquet de La Guerre
August 31, Lutheran Church
[20] Jean-Pierre Van Hees, musette; Bach Academie Alden Biesen
"The musette's move" (Chédeville, Dupuits des Bricettes, Jacquet de La Guerre)
August 31, TivoliVredenburg (Hertz)
[21] Officium Ensemble/Pedro Teixeira
"Lavish Renaissance polyphony" (D Lobo, Palestrina, Philips, Guerrero, Victoria, Byrd, Sweelinck)
August 31, Cathedral
[22] Aysha Wills, transverse flute; Octavie Dostaler-Lalonde, cello; Artem Belogurov, fortepiano
Frederick the Great, Wilhelmine of Prussia
Sept 1, TivoliVredenburg (Hertz)
[23] Andreas Staier, harpsichord
CPE & JS Bach
Sept 1, Lutheran Church
[24] Per-Sonat/Sabine Lutzenberger
Walther von der Vogelweide
Sept 1, Pieterskerk
[25] Cantar Lontano/Marco Marcoboni
"Ultimi miei sospiri" (Ortiz, Gesualdo, Macque, Stella, Trabaci, Nenna, Dentice)
Sept 1, Cathedral
[26] Les Ambassadeurs ~ La Grande Écurie/Alexis Kossenko
"A galant colossal orchestra"
Sept 1, TivoliVredenburg (large hall)
[27] Georg Fritz, oboe; Eva Saladin, violin; Sonoko Asabuki, viola; Daniel Rosin, cello
"The early oboe quartet" (Albrechtsberger, JC Bach, Boccherini, Janitsch, Molter)
Sept 2, TivoliVredenburg (Hertz)
[28] Jean-Christophe Dijoux, harpsichord
Mattheson, Lully, B Marcello, Buttstedt, F Couperin
Sept 2, Lutheran Church
[29] Moirai
The lais of Marie de France
Sept 2, TivoliVredenburg (Cloud Nine)
[30] Profeti della Quinta
Verdelot, Arcadelt, Cabezón
Sept 2, Pieterskerk
[31] Gli Angeli Genève/Stephan MacLeod
CPE Bach: Die Israeliten in der Wüste
Sept 2, TivoliVredenburg (large hall)
[32] Noémi Lenhof, viola da gamba; Guillaume Haldenwang, harpsichord
"The crowning glory of the viola da gamba" (A & JB Forqueray, JG Graun, Lidl, Schaffrath)
Sept 3, TivoliVredenburg (Hertz)
[33] Carole Cerasi, harpsichord
Duphly, Balbastre
Sept 3, Lutheran Church
[34] Konstantin Shchenikov, lute; Butter Quartet
"A lute for Bayreuth" (Durant, Falckenhagen, Hagen, Lombardini Sirmen)
Sept 3, TivoliVredenburg (Hertz)
[35] Ensemble Correspondances/Sébastien Daucé
"The crowning of Louis XIV"
Sept 3, TivoliVredenburg (large hall)
[36] Eva Saladin, violin; Daniel Rosin, cello; Johannes Keller, harpsichord
"Soirée Sarasin" (F Benda, De Fesch, Fritz, Locatelli, Miroglio)
Sept 3, TivoliVredenburg (Hertz)

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